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Hardware Firewall

Download Hardware Firewall and Sentry Firewall . The best firewall is a hardware firewall that is completely separate from your operating system. It need not be a dedicated router, could be an old pentium box running Linux. Below I have found some sites that have How To's on setting up an outside hardware router using an old computer and using a little linux program that fits on a single floppy disk.

Brief Description:
floppyfw is a router with the advanced firewall-capabilities in Linux that fits on one single floppy disc.

Access lists, IP-masquerading (Network Address Translation), connection tracked packet filtering and (quite) advanced routing. Package for traffic shaping is also available.
Requires only a 386sx or better with two network interface cards, a 1.44MB floppy drive and 12MByte of RAM ( for less than 12M and no FPU, use the 1.0 series, which will stay maintained. )
Very simple packaging system. Is used for editors, PPP, VPN, traffic shaping and whatever comes up. (now this is looking even more like LRP (may it rest in peace) but floppyfw is not a fork.)
Logging through klogd/syslogd, both local and remote.
Serial support for console over serial port.
DHCP server and DNS cache for internal networks.

Sentry Firewall CD-ROM is a Linux-based bootable CDROM suitable for use as an inexpensive and easy to maintain firewall, server, or IDS(Intrusion Detection System) Node. The system is designed to be immediately configurable for a variety of different operating environments via a configuration file located on a floppy disk, a local hard drive, and/or a network via HTTP(S), FTP, SFTP, or SCP.

The Sentry Firewall CD is a complete Linux system that runs off of an initial ramdisk, much like a floppy-based system, and a CD. The default kernel is a current 2.4.x series kernel with various Netfilter patches applied. An OpenWall-patched current 2.2.x kernel is also available on the CD.

Booting from the CDROM is a fairly familiar process. The BIOS execs the bootloader(Syslinux) - which then displays a bootprompt and loads the kernel and ramdisk into memory. Once the kernel is running, the ramdisk is then mounted as root(/). At this point our configuration scripts are run(written in perl) that configure the rest of the system. It is the job of these configure scripts to put the various startup and system files into the proper location using either what is declared in the configuration file(sentry.conf) or the system defaults located in the /etc/default directory.

Most of the critical files used at boot time can be replaced with your own copy when declared in the configuration file. This is essentially how we allow the user to configure the system using his/her own configuration and init files.

All of the binaries, files, scripts, etc, used to create the CD-ROM are also available on the CD-ROM. So, with a little practice, you can easily build and customize your own bootable Sentry Firewall CD. Please see the HOWTO for more details.
Sentry Firewall  
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Guide to Slipstreaming Service Pack 2

Here is the Guide to Slipstreaming Service Pack 2..

Note: All images are hosted with ImageShack.

• This guide will allow you to sucsessfully install Service Pack 2 on the original (gold) code of Microsoft Windows XP.
• The version of Windows you have purchased/downloaded does not matter as far as slipstreaming (they're all the same anyway).

Things you need:
• Microsoft Windows XP (duh :P)
• Service Pack 2:
click here to get it....

• Windows XP Boot sector click here to get it.
• Nero Burning Rom (find it on SoD)

Step One
Insert the Microsoft Windows XP CD into your CD-ROM drive, and create a new folder on your hard-drive labelled "CD".

Copy all of the files from the Windows XP CD to the "CD" folder.

Step Two
Download Service Pack 2 and place it within the root of your hard-drive.
Ex: C:\ D:\ etc..

Step Three
Go to Start -> Run and type in "F:\WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-ENU.exe -s:F:\CD" (depending on where you put the folder)

The actual command is -s:drive:\folder

Step Four
The Service Pack 2 updater will automatically slipstream Service Pack 2 into your "CD" folder.

Step Five
If you browse back to the CD folder, you'll notice that new folders and files appeared from the SP2 update. At this point, you can include any software you wish onto this CD, but make sure that the size of the folder does not exceed the media you are burning on. If you're not sure, a regular CD is 700 megabytes.

Step Six

Go to Start and Search for files and folders. Go to all files and folders, and type in "wpa.dbl". This is the activation file for your current installed version of XP. Make a copy of the file and paste it into your CD folder.

Step Seven
Open up Nero Smartstart, and click on the icon that looks like two people. This turns the program into "professional mode". Search for create a bootable CD. Click on it, and make sure that your settings agree with the following picture; also make sure that you downloaded the Windows XP boot sector.

Step Eight
Continue onto the next tab, and make sure that your settings agree with the picture:

Step Nine
In this step, you can label your CD whatever the hell you want. I recommend WXPSP2_EN.

Step Ten
Go to "new" and locate your CD folder. Drag all of the files in the CD folder to the compilation window on the right, and nero will calculate how much disk space was used. If it exceeds 700 MB, get rid of some programs that you added to the CD. If you didn't add anything; just push burn.

Step Eleven
Make sure that your settings check with the picture:

Step Twelve
Just push burn, and that's it! Congratulations, you just made a bootable Win XP CD with SP2 slipstreamed!

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Graffiti On Walls 4 Adobe Photoshop Cs 8.0

Graffiti On Walls 4 Adobe Photoshop Cs 8.0

Graffiti On Wall Tutorial For
Photoshop Cs 8.0

For This Tutorial You Must Have A Basic Understanding Of Adobe Photoshop Cs 8.0, Example : Where The Features Of The Program Are.

For This Tutorial You Will Need The Font Called Political Graffiti Fill Which Can Be Aquired Here and The Starting Wall Picture Which Can be Aquired Here.


(1). Open Photoshop Cs 8.0

(2). Open Wall Picture

(3). Type Ur Second Name In Red At 210pt Font Size In The Political Graffiti Fill Font.

(4). Click Icon All The Way At The Topright That Looks Like A T With A Rounded Line Under It. (Warp Text)

(5). Distort Style Squeeze Vertical, Bend = -31%, Horizontal Distortion = +18%, Vertical Distortion = +34%

(6). Layer> Layer Style> Blending Options, General Blending> Opacity 79%> Fill Opacity 100%, Blend If: Gray, Underlying Layer Black 60, White 210

(7). Type Ur First Name In Red At 210pt Font Size In The Political Graffiti Fill Font.

(8). Click Icon All The Way At The Topright That Looks Like A T With A Rounded Line Under It. (Warp Text)

(9). Distort Style Squeeze Vertical, Bend = +50%, Horizontal Distortion = 0%, Vertical Distortion = -31%

(10). Layer> Layer Style> Blending Options, General Blending> Opacity 79%> Fill Opacity 100%, Blend If: Gray, Underlying Layer Black 60, White 210

(11). Duplicate Both Layers

(12). Move Copied Layers One On Top Of The Other (In The Layer Menu)

(13). Hide The Original Ur Second Name And Ur First Name Layers By Clicking The Eye Icons So That They Dissapear.

(14). In The Copies, Right Click (One At A Time) And Click Rasterize Layer.

(15). Go to Layer> Merge Down (Ctrl + E) (On Top Name Layer).

(16). Layer> Layer Style> Stroke Change Color To Black, Size to 8, Then Opacity To 68%.

(17). Save If No Blur Effect Wanted

(18). Filter> Blur> Smart Blur> Mode: Overlay Edges, Threshhold 48%, Radius 6, Quality: High.

(19). Layer> New Layer

(20) Brush Tool (B), Paint Brush With The Soft 16pt Airbrush For Spraypaint Effect.

(21). Smuge Around Graffiti For Paint Smudge Look For Good Effect (Optional)

(22). Save.


Final Images:

Graffiti With Blur get here

Graffiti No Blur get here

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Keyboard Shortcuts

Get all Keyboard Shortcuts here which are very useful to us...

General Keyboard Shortcuts:
CTRL+C (Copy)
CTRL+X (Cut)
CTRL+V (Paste)
CTRL+Z (Undo)
DELETE (Delete)
SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
CTRL+A (Select all)
F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
F5 key (Update the active window)
BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
ESC (Cancel the current task)
SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
Dialog Box Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
TAB (Move forward through the options)
SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
F1 key (Display Help)
F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)
Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
END (Display the bottom of the active window)
HOME (Display the top of the active window)
NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)
Shortcut Keys for Character Map
After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
UP ARROW (Move up one row)
DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
END (Move to the end of the line)
CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
CTRL+N (Open a new console)
CTRL+S (Save the open console)
CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
CTRL+W (Open a new window)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
ALT+F4 (Close the console)
ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
ALT+V (Display the View menu)
ALT+F (Display the File menu)
ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)
MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)
Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
Microsoft Internet Explorer Navigation
CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
CTRL+W (Close the current window)
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Formatting An Hdd, when fdisk won't

Here is the process for formatting an HDD when FDISK won't.......

This is my favorite way to wipe it clean:

CAUTION: This debug script is for advanced users only. Its Purpose is to remove all formatting and partitioning information from your hard disk when FDISK is unable to do so. THIS WILL REMOVE ALL DATA AND PROGRAMS FORM THE DRIVE.

1. Create a MSDOS bood disk with Debug

2. At DOS command prompt type the following: Debug[Enter] (Where enter is to press the enter key once)

NOTE: Type the following bolded text only. You will recieve an error if you type anything other than the bold text. The non-bolded text represents what will appear on you screen once you press [Enter] after each command.

-F 200 L1000 0 [Enter]
-A CS:100 [Enter]
xxxx:0100 MOV AX,301 [Enter]
xxxx:0103 MOV BX,200 [Enter]
xxxx:0106 MOV CX,1 [Enter]
xxxx:0109 MOV DX,80 [Enter]

NOTE: ( --- "80" for hd0, "81" for hd1)

xxxx:010c INT 13 [Enter]
xxxx: 010e INT 20 [Enter]
xxxx: 0110 [Enter]

-G [Enter]
"Program terminated normally"

3. Turn off the computer. On the next startup the hard drive will need to be partitioned and formatted.
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Dual Boot

Process or procedure for Dual Boot after the fact.....

I want to run both Windows 2000 Pro and Windows 98 SE on my computer. When I bought a new hard drive, I installed Windows 2000 on it first. But my subsequent research seems to indicate that I should have installed Windows 98 SE first and then Windows 2000 on a separate partition. How do I remove Windows 2000 from the drive so I can partition it and then install Windows 98 SE first and reinstall Windows 2000?

You don't have to remove Windows 2000. Start by installing Windows 98 SE in a different partition. When you're done, insert the Windows 2000 CD and reboot to start Windows 2000 setup. On the Welcome to Setup page, press R (for Repair). When you reach the Windows 2000 Repair Options page, press R again.

You'll then be prompted to select a repair option. Press M for Manual. Then press the Up Arrow until Verify Windows 2000 system files is highlighted; press Enter to clear this selection. Press the Down Arrow to select Continue (perform selected tasks), and then press Enter.

The system will ask whether you have an emergency repair disk. Press L, indicating it should Locate your existing installation. Once it does so, press Enter to complete the repairs. This will establish dual boot for you. (This procedure also works for Windows XP.)


Don't know if this will also work for Linux. If anyone does try it, please let me know.
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How to create Imp Files using DOS

How to create Important files using DOS.....
Here is trick for the DOS user who are not having Boot Dos Disk, No ...
Hello Dos friends...
This is a simple but most forgotton command to create
files like config.sys and autoexec.bat files, well heres it...
Even if u dont have a dos boot disk u can work ur way
to some extent.
At c:\ prompt
copy con config.sys
devicehigh=c:\dos\emm386.exe ram
last drive=z
then press CTRL + z
press enter
Config.sys file will be created.
Similarly u can create autoexec.bat
@echo off
lh mouse
lh doskey
Press CTRL + Z
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Disable Windows Logo Key

How to disable Windows Logo key, i was recently playing games and this nasty windos logo key keep annoying me , cause i often accidently clicked it , and i start to search a solution to solve my problem, and found the following article in microsfot website, and it did work, hope this helps, thanks! click here or in other articles, u can copy the following messages into ur notepad and save as *.reg, and use it..

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Keyboard Layout]
"Scancode Map"=hex:00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,03,00,00,00,00,00,5b,e0,00,00,5c,e0,\

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Disable The Send Error Report, to Microsoft

How to Disable The Send Error Report, to Microsoft or how to disable the feature in windows xp which Send Error Report, to Microsoft


Open Control Panel
Click on Preformance and Maintenance.
Click on System.
Then click on the Advanced tab
Click on the error reporting button on the bottom of the windows.
Select Disable error reporting.
Click OK
Click OK

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Disable Compression On Xp, NTFS partition, Disk Cleanup

How to disable compression on windows Xp, NTFS partition, Disk Cleanup from ur computer...
On an NTFS partition, Disk Cleanup can compress old files to save space. But calculating the savings and performing the compression often take a long time, and on some systems, Disk Cleanup hangs during the process. If that happens, or if you don't care to wait, use this Registry tweak to disable thecompression: Delete the key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\VolumeCaches\Compress Old Files.
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Delete Files From The Recent File List In Windows

Here is the simple trick to delete files from the recent file list in windows,this tip requires a change to the Windows Registry. Please see the MSFN Guide "Backup Your Registry" if you are new to the Windows Registry.

Windows Media Player (WMP) is a built-in application that allows you to play multimedia files. Like many other applications, WMP remembers the most recently played files and displays them in the Recent File List under the File menu. This feature is useful if you regularly play certain files, but you may want to clear the list if you share the computer and a user account or create archives and CDs.

There are two ways you can clear the list:

I. The ClearMRU.exe Utility is available for free in the Windows Media Player Bonus Pack from Microsoft, but Microsoft does not support this tool.

II. You can also manually delete the list through the Windows Registry:

1. Start the Windows Registry Editor, regedit.exe, by typing regedit in the Windows Run Command Line.

2. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\MediaPlayer\Player\RecentFileList.

3. Delete the RecentFileList subkey.

4. If you've also streamed content from the Internet, you can delete the RecentURLList subkey.

5. Exit the Registry Editor.

6. Restart the computer.

To keep certain files in the list, don't delete the entire key. Deleting individual entries within the key will get rid of the files that you no longer want in the Recent File List.
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Delete an undeletable or locked file

How to delete An undeletable or locked File from ur computer sometimes we r unable to delete certain files from our PC actually they r undeletable or locked follow the steps to delete those undeletable files

Open a Command Prompt window and leave it open.
Close all open programs.
Click Start, Run and enter TASKMGR.EXE
Go to the Processes tab and End Process on Explorer.exe.
Leave Task Manager open.
Go back to the Command Prompt window and change to the directory the AVI (or other undeletable file) is located in.
At the command prompt type DEL where is the file you wish to delete.
Go back to Task Manager, click File, New Task and enter EXPLORER.EXE to restart the GUI shell.
Close Task Manager.

Or you can try this

Open Notepad.exe

Click File>Save As..>

locate the folder where ur undeletable file is

Choose 'All files' from the file type box

click once on the file u wanna delete so its name appears in the 'filename' box

put a " at the start and end of the filename
(the filename should have the extension of the undeletable file so it will overwrite it)

click save,
It should ask u to overwrite the existing file, choose yes and u can delete it as normal

Here's a manual way of doing it. I'll take this off once you put into your first post zain.

1. Start
2. Run
3. Type: command
4. To move into a directory type: cd c:\*** (The stars stand for your folder)
5. If you cannot access the folder because it has spaces for example Program Files or Kazaa Lite folder you have to do the following. instead of typing in the full folder name only take the first 6 letters then put a ~ and then 1 without spaces. Example: cd c:\progra~1\kazaal~1
6. Once your in the folder the non-deletable file it in type in dir - a list will come up with everything inside.
7. Now to delete the file type in del ***.bmp, txt, jpg, avi, etc... And if the file name has spaces you would use the special 1st 6 letters followed by a ~ and a 1 rule. Example: if your file name was bad file.bmp you would type once in the specific folder thorugh command, del badfil~1.bmp and your file should be gone. Make sure to type in the correct extension.
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How to Crack Windows

Learn here how to crack or hack windows manually, debug: Learn how to crack windows, programs act manually.....

Debug is a program that comes with modern versions of DOS (I do not know when I started shipping out with DOS). Anyway, all Windows users should have it already.

It's a great tool for debuging programs, unassembling and cracking, and reading "hidden" memory areas like the boot sector, and much more.

The following was copied from an assembly tutorial who's author we cannot credit, because we have no idea who he is.

Get into DOS and type "debug", you will get a prompt like this:

now type "?", you should get the following response:
assemble A [address]
compare C range address
dump D [range]
enter E address [list]
fill F range list
go G [=address] [addresses]
hex H value1 value2
input I port
load L [address] [drive] [firstsector] [number]
move M range address
name N [pathname] [arglist]
output O port byte
proceed P [=address] [number]
quit Q
register R [register]
search S range list
trace T [=address] [value]
unassemble U [range]
write W [address] [drive] [firstsector] [number]
allocate expanded memory XA [#pages]
deallocate expanded memory XD [handle]
map expanded memory pages XM [Lpage] [Ppage] [handle]
display expanded memory status XS

Lets go through each of these commands:


At this point you can start assembling some programs, just like using a assembler. However the debug assembler is very limited as you will probably notice. Lets try to enter a simple program:

107A:0100 MOV AH,02
107A:0102 MOV DL,41
107A:0104 INT 21
107A:0106 INT 20

Program terminated normally

That's the same program we did at the end of the previous chapter. Notice how you run the program you just entered with "g", and also notice how the set-up part is not there? That's because debug is just too limited to support that.
Another thing you can do with assemble is specify the address at which you want to start, by default this is 0100 since that's where all .COM files start.

Compare takes 2 block of memory and displays them side by side, byte for byte. Lets do an example. Quite out of debug if you haven't already using "q". Now type "debug c:\"

-c 0100 l 8 0200
10A3:0100 7A 06 10A3:0200

This command compared offset 0100 with 0200 for a length of 8 bytes. Debug responded with the location that was DIFFERENT. If 2 locations were the same, debug would just omit them, if all are the same debug would simply return to the prompt without any response.

Dump will dump a specified memory segment. To test it, code that assembly program again:

107A:0100 MOV AH,02
107A:0102 MOV DL,41
107A:0104 INT 21
107A:0106 INT 20
-d 0100 l 8
107A:0100 B4 02 B2 41 CD 21 CD 20

The "B4 02 B2 41 CD 21 CD 20" is the program you just made in machine language.

B4 02 = MOV AH,02
B2 41 = MOV DL,41
CD 21 = INT 21
CD 20 = INT 20

The "...A.!." part is your program in ASCII. The "." represent non-printable characters. Notice the A in there.

This is one of the hard commands. With it you can enter/change certain memory areas. Lets change our program so that it prints a B instead of an A.
-e 0103 <-- edit program at segment 0103 107A:0103 41.42 <-- change 41 to 42 -g B Program terminated normally - Wasn't that amazing? Fill: This command is fairly useless, but who knows.... It fills the specified amount of memory with the specified data. Lets for example clear out all memory from segment 0100 to 0108, which happens to be our program. -f 0100 l 8 0 <-- file offset 0100 for a length of 8 bytes with 0 -d 0100 l 8 <-- verify that it worked 107A:0100 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ....... Yep, it worked. Go: So far we used go (g) to start the program we just created. But Go can be used for much more. For example, lets say we want to execute a program at 107B:0100: -r CS <-- set the CS register to point to 107B CS 107A :107B -g =100 You can also set breakpoints. -a <-- enter our original program so we have something 107A:0100 MOV AH,02 to work with 107A:0102 MOV DL,41 107A:0104 INT 21 107A:0106 INT 20 -g 102 <-- set up a break point at 107A:0102 At this point the program will stop, display all registers and the current instruction. Hex: This can be very useful. It subtracts and adds two hexadecimal values: -h 2 1 0003 0001 <-- 2h + 1+ = 3h and 2h - 1h = 1h This is very useful for calculating a programs length, as you will see later. Input: This is one of the more advanced commands, and I decided not to talk about it too much for now. It will read a byte of data from any of your computers I/O ports (keyboard, mouse, printer, etc). -i 3FD 60 - Your data may be different. In case you want to know, 3FD is Com port 1, also known as First Asynchronous Adapter. Load: This command has 2 formats. It can be used to load the filename specified with the name command (n), or it can load a specific sector. -n c:\ -l This will load into debug. When a valid program is loaded all registers will be set up and ready to execute the program. The other method is a bit more complicated, but potential also more usefull. The syntax is L

-l 100 2 10 20

This will load starting at offset 0100 from drive C (0 = A, 1 = B, 2 = C, etc), sector 10h for 20h sectors. This can be useful for recovering files you deleted.

Move takes a byte from the starting address and moves it to the destination address. This is very good to temporary move data into a free area, than manipulate it without having to worry about affecting the original program. It is especially useful if used in conjunction with the r command to which I will get later. Lets try an example:
-a <-- enter our original program so we have something 107A:0100 MOV AH,02 to work with 107A:0102 MOV DL,41 107A:0104 INT 21 107A:0106 INT 20 -m 107A:0100 L 8 107B:0100 <-- more 8 bytes starting from 107A:0100 into 107B:0100 -e 107B:0103 <-- edit 107B:0103 107B:0103 41.42 <-- and change it 42 ( -d 107A:0100 L 8 <-- make sure it worked 107A:0100 B4 02 B2 41 CD 21 CD 20 ...A.!. -d 107B:0100 L 8 107A:0100 B4 02 B2 42 CD 21 CD 20 ...B.!. -m 107B:0100 L 8 107A:0100 <-- restore the original program since we like the changes. Name: This will set debug up with a filename to use for I/O commands. You have to include the file extension, and you may use addition commands: -n c:\ Output: Exactly what you think it is. Output sends stuff to an I/O port. If you have an external modem with those cool lights on it, you can test this out. Find out what port your modem is on and use the corresponding hex number below: Com 1 = 3F8 - 3FF (3DF for mine) Com 2 = 2F8 - 2FF Com 3 = ??? - ??? (if someone knows, please let me know) Now turn on the DTA (Data Terminal Ready) bit by sending 01h to it: -o XXX 1 <-- XXX is the com port in hex As soon as you hit enter, take a look at your modem, you should see a light light up. You can have even more fun with the output command. Say someone put one of those BIOS passwords on "your" computer. Usually you'd have to take out the battery to get rid of it, but not anymore: MI/AWARD BIOS -o 70 17 -o 71 17 QPHOENIX BIOS -o 70 FF -o 71 17 QGENERIC -o 70 2E -o 71 FF These commands will clear the BIOS memory, thus disabling the password. Proceed: Proceeds in the execution of a program, usually used together withy Trace, which I will cover later. Like the go command, you can specify an address from which to start using =address -p 2 Debug will respond with the registers and the current command to be executed. Quite: This has got to be the most advanced feature of debug, it exits debug! -q Register: This command can be used to display the current value of all registers, or to manually set them. This is very useful for writing files as you will see later on. -r AX AX: 011B :5 - Search: Another very useful command. It is used to find the occurrence of a specific byte, or series of bytes in a segment. The data to search for can by either characters, or a hex value. Hex values are entered with a space or comma in between them, and characters are enclosed with quotes (single or double). You can also search for hex and characters with the same string: -n c:\ <-- load so we have some data to search in -l -s 0 l 0 "MS-DOS" <-- search entire memory block for "MS-DOS" 10A3:39E9 <-- found the string in 10A3:39E9 NOTE: the search is case sensitive! Trace: This is a truly great feature of debug. It will trace through a program one instruction at a time, displaying the instruction and registers after each. Like the go command you can specify where to start executing from, and for how long. -a <-- yes, this thing again 107A:0100 MOV AH,02 107A:0102 MOV DL,41 107A:0104 INT 21 107A:0106 INT 20 -t =0100 8 If you leave out the amount of instructions that you want to trace, you can use the proceed (p) to continue the execution as long as you want. Unassemble: Unassembles a block of code. Great for debugging (and cracking) -u 100 L 8 <-- unassembles 8 bytes starting at offset 100 107A:0100 MOV AH,02 <-- debut's response 107A:0102 MOV DL,41 107A:0104 INT 21 107A:0106 INT 20 Write: This command works very similar to Load. It also has 2 ways it can operate: using name, and by specifying an exact location. Refer to back to Load for more information. NOTE: The register CX must be set the file size in order to write! NOTE: Write will not write .EXE or .HEX files.[SIZE=7][SIZE=14]
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Create Universal Ghost USB Boot Disk and CD

How to create or make universal ghost USB boot disk and CD, If you want to use Norton Ghost 2003 to create an image of a PC's primary partition you will find it has 2 serious limitations:
1- The USB support driver they use (from Iomega) can only be installed in USB1 or USB2 mode (not both), and it is not universal - it didn't recognize my external USB IBM mobile HD .
2- You can't create a Ghost bootable CD - only a floppy. How can you clone a newly bought laptop, most of which don't have a floppy anymore?
Here's How to:
1- create a Ghost floppy with USB support (1 or 2 - it won't matter later)
2- download 2 files kxlrw40an.exe and
click here to get the .exe file & click here to get the .zip file

From the first file (Panasonic driver for a USB CDRW) you will need the file usbaspi.sys found under "F2H" sub directory after extraction of the downloaded archive. From the second archive you need di1000dd.sys
3- Copy these 2 files to the USB folder on the Ghost floppy, and delete any other files in that folder. Also delete the file guest.exe from the floppy's root.
4- And finaly:
edit the AUTOEXEC.BAT file - delete the line: guest.exe
and edit CONFIG.SYS - delete all entries and enter:
device=usb\USBASPI.SYS /v /e /o /u

That's it. You can now boot with this floppy and have full USB support so you can create the image on an external USB drive.

If you want to create a bootable CD you can use Nero:
Choose to create a "CD-ROM (boot)" from the wizard, under Boot tab leave the default "bootable logical drive: as A:\ . Insert your Ghost floppy to the drive, drag all the files from the floppy to "New compilation" and burn. You now have a bootable Ghost CD that even Symantec doesn't have..

PS if you need Norton Ghost 2003 get the full retail here.

Posted under:

Create a Board aka Forum on your own PC

How to create a Board aka Forum on your own PC , first of all you need Apache Server, PHP, MySQL and a Forum Script i.e. phpBB or Invision or vBulletin.

Download phpDev here and you get a bundle of all the things above.....
Extract & install php dev. start the apache server,its 90% done.

upload the forum script to X:/phpdev/www/public

(x is your drive, usually C: )

Now to access the forum through internet you will not know your IP address thru ipconfig command click here. see whats your IP address.

now go to

http://your ip address/public/your forum directory/install.php

thats it!

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One-Click Shutdown and Reboot

How to create 'One-Click Shutdown' and 'Reboot' Shortcuts or how to shutdown and reboot quickly in secs..
Follow the steps:

First, create a shortcut on your desktop by right-clicking on the desktop, choosing New, and then choosing Shortcut. The Create Shortcut Wizard appears. In the box asking for the location of the shortcut, type shutdown. After you create the shortcut, double-clicking on it will shut down your PC.

But you can do much more with a shutdown shortcut than merely shut down your PC. You can add any combination of several switches to do extra duty, like this:

shutdown -r -t 01 -c "Rebooting your PC"
Double-clicking on that shortcut will reboot your PC after a one-second delay and display the message "Rebooting your PC." The shutdown command includes a variety of switches you can use to customize it. Table 1-3 lists all of them and describes their use.

I use this technique to create two shutdown shortcuts on my desktop—one for turning off my PC, and one for rebooting. Here are the ones I use:

shutdown -s -t 03 -c "Bye Bye m8!"
shutdown -r -t 03 -c "Ill be back m8 ;)!"

What it does

Shuts down the PC.

Logs off the current user.

-t nn
Indicates the duration of delay, in seconds, before performing the action.

-c "messagetext"
Displays a message in the System Shutdown window. A maximum of 127 characters can be used. The message must be enclosed in quotation marks.

Forces any running applications to shut down.

Reboots the PC.
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Create Bootable XP SP integrated CD

How to create bootable windows xp SP integrated cd ,slipstreaming Windows XP Service Pack 1a and Create Bootable CD...

Slipstreaming a Service Pack, is the process to integrate the Service Pack into the installation so that with every new installation the Operating System and Service Pack are installed at the same time.

Slipstreaming is usually done on network shares on corporate systems. But with the advent of CD burners, it does actually make some sense for the home user or small business user to do the same.

Microsoft added the ability to Slipstream a Service Pack to Windows 2000 and Windows XP. It not only has the advantage that when you (re)install your OS, you don't have to apply the Service Pack later, also if you update any Windows component later, you'll be sure that you get the correct installation files if Windows needs any.

Slipstream Windows XP Service Pack 1a click here to get it.
Download the (full) "Network Install" of the Service Pack (English version [125 MB]), and save it to a directory (folder) on your hard drive (in my case D:\XP-SP1). Other languages can be downloaded from the Windows XP Web site.

Microsoft recently released Windows XP SP1a. The only difference is that this Service Pack does no longer include Microsoft's dated Java version. If you have already installed Windows XP SP1, there is no reason to install SP1a, but the "older" SP1 (with MS Java) is no longer available for download.

Next copy your Windows XP CD to your hard drive. Just create a folder (I used \XP-CD), and copy all the contents of your Windows XP CD in that folder.

Now create a folder to hold the Service Pack 1a (SP1a) files you are about to extract. I named it \XP-SP1. Next, open a Command Prompt (Start > Run > cmd), and go to the folder where you downloaded SP1a (cd \foldername). Type the command: servicepack filename -x. A small window will appear, and you need to point it to the folder where you want to extract the SP1 files. Click Ok to start extracting the SP1a files.

Once the SP1a files are extracted, change to the update folder of the SP1a files (cd update), and type the following command: update /s:path to WinXP CD files. In my example the command is update /s:D:\XP-CD).

Windows XP Update will do its thing:

When ready, you should get a confirmation. Windows XP Service Pack 1a has now been Slipstreamed into your original Windows XP files.

It is also possible to add the Windows XP Rollup 1 Update. For instructions, please read Adding Windows XP Rollup 1 Hotfix.

Creating a Bootable CD
For this part I used ISO Buster click here to get ISO Burner and Nero Burning.

Start to extract the boot loader from the original Windows XP CD. Using ISO Buster, select the "folder" Bootable CD, and right-click Microsoft Corporation.img. From the menu choose Extract Microsoft Corporation.img, and extract it to the folder on your hard drive where you have your Windows XP files (D:\XP-CD in my case).

Next, start Nero Burning ROM, and choose CD-ROM (Boot) in the New Compilation window. On the Boot tab, select Image file under Source of boot image data, and browse to the location of the Microsoft Corporation.img file. Also enable Expert Settings, choosing No Emulation, and changing the Number of loaded sectors to 4 (otherwise it won't boot!)

If you have an older version of Nero you won't have the option Do Not Add ";1" ISO file version extention under Relax ISO Restrictions. You won't be able to boot your new CD, so update Nero!
You can configure the Label tab to your liking, I would however recommend that you keep the Volume Label the same as on your original Windows XP CD.

Next press New, and drag & drop the files and folders from your Windows XP hard drive location into Nero.

Next, burn your new CD.

You now have a Bootable, Slipstreamed Windows XP Service Pack 1a CD!
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Create Bootable Win XP SP1 CD(nero)

Here is the simple way to create a bootable Windows XP SP1 CD (Nero):
How to create bootable windows xp sp1 cd, just follow the below steps:

Step 1:
Create 3 folders - C:\WINXPSP1, C:\SP1106 and C:\XPBOOT

Step 2 :
Copy the entire Windows XP CD into folder C:\WINXPSP1

Step 3:
You will have to download the SP1 Update, which is 133MB.
Rename the Service Pack file to XP-SP1.EXE
Extract the Service Pack from the Run Dialog using the command:
C:\XP-SP1.EXE -U -X:C:\SP1106

Step 4 :
Open Start/Run... and type the command:
C:\SP1106\update\update.exe -s:C:\WINXPSP1

Click OK

Folder C:\WINXPSP1 contains: Windows XP SP1

How to Create a Windows XP SP1 CD Bootable

Step 1:
Download here ( no download manager !! )

Extract file (xpboot.bin) in to the folder C:\XPBOOT

Step 2:
Start Nero - Burning Rom.
Select File > New... from the menu.
1.) Select CD-ROM (Boot)
2.) Select Image file from Source of boot image data
3.) Set Kind of emulation: to No Emulation
4.) Set Load segment of sectors (hex!): to 07C0
5.) Set Number of loaded sectors: to 4
6.) Press the Browse... button

Step 3:
Select All Files (*.*) from File of type:
Locate boot.bin in the folder C:\XPBOOT

Step 4 :
Click ISO tab
Set File-/Directory length to ISO Level 1 (Max. of 11 = 8 + 3 chars)
Set Format to Mode 1
Set Character Set to ISO 9660
Check all Relax ISO Restrictions

Step 5:
Click Label Tab
Select ISO9660 from the drop down box.
Enter the Volume Label as WB2PFRE_EN
Enter the System Identifier as WB2PFRE_EN
Enter the Volume Set as WB2PFRE_EN
Enter the Publisher as MICROSOFT CORPORATION
Enter the Data Preparer as MICROSOFT CORPORATION
Enter the Application as WB2PFRE_EN

* For Windows XP Professional OEM substitute WB2PFRE_EN with WXPOEM_EN
* For Windows XP Home OEM substitute WB2PFRE_EN with WXHOEM_EN

Step 6:
Click Burn tab
Check Write
Check Finalize CD (No further writing possible!)
Set Write Method to Disk-At-Once

Press New button

Step 7 :
Locate the folder C:\WINXPSP1
Select everything in the folder and drag it to the ISO compilation panel.
Click the Write CD Dialog button.

Press Write

You're done.

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Create A Personal Screen Saver In Win Xp!

How to create our own personal screen saver in windows xp,this isnt a tweak, but a great little feature! For a great way to put your digital photos to work, try creating a slide show presentation for use as a screen saver. Here's how:

1. Right-click an empty spot on your desktop and then click Properties.

2. Click the Screen Saver tab.

3. In the Screen saver list, click My Pictures Slideshow.

4. Click Settings to make any adjustments, such as how often the pictures should change, what size they should be, and whether you'll use transition effects between pictures, and then click OK.

Now your screen saver is a random display of the pictures taken from your My Pictures folder.
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Create A Huge File

How to create a huge,here is da simple way to create a huge file on your pc...

You can create a file of any size using nothing more than what's supplied with Windows. Start by converting the desired file size into hexadecimal notation. You can use the Windows Calculator in Scientific mode do to this. Suppose you want a file of 1 million bytes. Enter 1000000 in the calculator and click on the Hex option to convert it (1 million in hex is F4240.) Pad the result with zeroes at the left until the file size reaches eight digits—000F4240.

Now open a command prompt window. In Windows 95, 98, or Me, you can do this by entering COMMAND in the Start menu's Run dialog; in Windows NT 4.0, 2000, or XP enter CMD instead. Enter the command DEBUG BIGFILE.DAT and ignore the File not found message. Type RCX and press Enter. Debug will display a colon prompt. Enter the last four digits of the hexadecimal number you calculated (4240, in our example). Type RBX and press Enter, then enter the first four digits of the hexadecimal size (000F, in our example). Enter W for Write and Q for Quit. You've just created a 1-million-byte file using Debug. Of course you can create a file of any desired size using the same technique.
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Cracking Zip Password Files

How to crack zip password files given below is best tut to crack password for zip files..
Tut On Cracking Zip Password Files..
What is FZC? FZC is a program that cracks zip files (zip is a method of compressing multiple files into one smaller file) that are password-protected (which means you're gonna need a password to open the zip file and extract files out of it). You can get it anywhere - just use a search engine such as
FZC uses multiple methods of cracking - bruteforce (guessing passwords systematically until the program gets it) or wordlist attacks (otherwise known as dictionary attacks. Instead of just guessing passwords systematically, the program takes passwords out of a "wordlist", which is a text file that contains possible passwords. You can get lots of wordlists at
FZC can be used in order to achieve two different goals: you can either use it to recover a lost zip password which you used to remember but somehow forgot, or to crack zip passwords which you're not supposed to have. So like every tool, this one can be used for good and for evil.
The first thing I want to say is that reading this tutorial... is the easy way to learn how to use this program, but after reading this part of how to use the FZC you should go and check the texts that come with that program and read them all. You are also going to see the phrase "check name.txt" often in this text. These files should be in FZC's directory. They contain more information about FZC.
FZC is a good password recovery tool, because it's very fast and also support resuming so you don't have to keep the computer turned on until you get the password, like it used to be some years ago with older cracking programs. You would probably always get the password unless the password is longer than 32 chars (a char is a character, which can be anything - a number, a lowercase or undercase letter or a symbol such as ! or &) because 32 chars is the maximum value that FZC will accept, but it doesn't really matter, because in order to bruteforce a password with 32 chars you'll need to be at least immortal..heehhe.. to see the time that FZC takes with bruteforce just open the Bforce.txt file, which contains such information.
FZC supports brute-force attacks, as well as wordlist attacks. While brute-force attacks don't require you to have anything, wordlist attacks require you to have wordlists, which you can get from There are wordlists in various languages, various topics or just miscellaneous wordlists. The bigger the wordlist is, the more chances you have to crack the password.
Now that you have a good wordlist, just get FZC working on the locked zip file, grab a drink, lie down and wait... and wait... and wait...and have good thoughts like "In wordlist mode I'm gonna get the password in minutes" or something like this... you start doing all this and remember "Hey this guy started with all this bullshit and didn't say how I can start a wordlist attack!..." So please wait just a little more, read this tutorial 'till the end and you can do all this "bullshit".

We need to keep in mind that are some people might choose some really weird passwords (for example: 'e8t7@$^%*gfh), which are harder to crack and are certainly impossible to crack (unless you have some weird wordlist). If you have a bad luck and you got such a file, having a 200MB list won't help you anymore. Instead, you'll have to use a different type of attack. If you are a person that gives up at the first sign of failure, stop being like that or you won't get anywhere. What you need to do in such a situation is to put aside your sweet xxx MB's list and start using the Brute Force attack.
If you have some sort of a really fast and new computer and you're afraid that you won't be able to use your computer's power to the fullest because the zip cracker doesn't support this kind of technology, it's your lucky day! FZC has multiple settings for all sorts of hardware, and will automatically select the best method.

Now that we've gone through all the theoretical stuff, let's get to the actual commands.


The command line you'll need to use for using brute force is:

fzc -mb -lChr Lenght -cType of chars

Now if you read the bforce.txt that comes with fzc you'll find the description of how works Chr Lenght and the Type of chars, but hey, I'm gonna explain this too. Why not, right?... (but remember look at the bforce.txt too)

For Chr Lenght you can use 4 kind of switches...

-> You can use range -> 4-6 :it would brute force from 4 Chr passwors to 6 chr passwords
-> You can use just one lenght -> 5 :it would just brute force using passwords with 5 chars
-> You can use also the all number -> 0 :it would start brute forcing from passwords with lenght 0 to lenght 32, even if you are crazy i don't think that you would do this.... if you are thinking in doing this get a live...
-> You can use the + sign with a number -> 3+ :in this case it would brute force from passwords with lenght 3 to passwords with 32 chars of lenght, almost like the last option...

For the Type of chars we have 5 switches they are:

-> a for using lowercase letters
-> A for using uppercase letters
-> ! for using simbols (check the Bforce.txt if you want to see what simbols)
-> s for using space
-> 1 for using numbers

If you want to find a password with lowercase and numbers by brute force you would just do something like:

fzc -mb -l4-7 -ca1

This would try all combinations from passwords with 4 chars of lenght till 7 chars, but just using numbers and lowercase.


You should never start the first brute force attack to a file using all the chars switches, first just try lowercase, then uppercase, then uppercase with number then lowercase with numbers, just do like this because you can get lucky and find the password much faster, if this doesn't work just prepare your brain and start with a brute force that would take a lot of time. With a combination like lowercase, uppercase, special chars and numbers.


Like I said in the bottom and like you should be thinking now, the wordlist is the most powerfull mode in this program. Using this mode, you can choose between 3 modes, where each one do some changes to the text that is in the wordlist, I'm not going to say what each mode does to the words, for knowing that just check the file wlist.txt, the only thing I'm going to tell you is that the best mode to get passwords is mode 3, but it takes longer time too.
To start a wordlist attak you'll do something like.

fzc -mwMode number -nwWordlist


Mode number is 1, 2 or 3 just check wlist.txt to see the changes in each mode. is the filename and Wordlist is the name of the wordlist that you want to use. Remember that if the file or the wordlist isn't in the same directory of FZC you'll need to give the all path.

You can add other switches to that line like -fLine where you define in which line will FZC start reading, and the -lChar Length where it will just be read the words in that char length, the switche works like in bruteforce mode.
So if you something like

fzc -mw1 -nwMywordlist.txt -f50 -l9+

FZC would just start reading at line 50 and would just read with length >= to 9.


If you want to crack a file called using the "theargonlistserver1.txt" wordlist, selecting mode 3, and you wanted FZC to start reading at line 50 you would do:

fzc -mw3 -nwtheargonlistserver1.txt -f50


Other good feature in FZC is that FZC supports resuming. If you need to shutdown your computer and FZC is running you just need to press the ESC key, and fzc will stop. Now if you are using a brute force attack the current status will be saved in a file called resume.fzc but if you are using a wordlist it will say to you in what line it ended (you can find the line in the file fzc.log too).
To resume the bruteforce attack you just need to do:

fzc -mr

And the bruteforce attack will start from the place where it stopped when you pressed the ESC key.
But if you want to resume a wordlist attack you'll need to start a new wordlist attack, saying where it's gonna start. So if you ended the attack to the in line 100 using wordlist.txt in mode 3 to resume you'll type

fzc -mw3 -nwwordlist.txt -f100

Doing this FZC would start in line 100, since the others 99 lines where already checked in an earlier FZC session.

Well, it looks like I covered most of what you need to know. I certainly hope it helped you... don't forget to read the files that come with the program
Posted under:

Cracking Bios Password

Want to learn how to crack bios password here is the best way to crack the bios password in win 95/98:

Follow the steps below:

1) Boot up windows.
2) go to dos-prompt or go to command prompt directly from the windows start up menu.

3) type the command at the prompt: "debug" (without quotes ninja.gif )
4) type the following lines now exactly as given.......
o 70 10
o 71 20

4) exit from the dos prompt and restart the machine

password protection gone!!!!!!!!!!!!! biggrin.gif


PS: I tested this in Award Bios........
There seems to be some issue regarding display drivers on some machines if this is used. Just reinstall the drivers, Everything will be fine...........

I have not found any other trouble if the codes are used.

To be on safe side, just back up your data..........

The use of this code is entirely at ur risk.......... It worked fine for me..........
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Converting to NTFS

How to converts files into NTFS
Your hard drive must be formatted with a file system such as FAT, FAT32 or NTFS so that Windows can be installed on to it. This system determines how files are named, organised and stored on the drive. If you’re not using it already, NTFS (New Technology File System) is recommended for Windows XP because of the additional functionality it offers. If your PC came with Windows XP pre-installed then there’s a chance that you’re already using NTFS. If you’ve upgraded from Windows 98 or Windows Me you may still be using FAT or FAT 32. The option to change over to NTFS would have been available during the upgrade process. Don’t worry if you skipped this as it’s possible to convert at any time from within Windows XP without losing any data.

The recommended option
There are a number of features in Windows XP that will only work if the NTFS file system is present, which is why it’s suggested you make use of it. File and folder permissions, encryption and privacy options are just some of those you’ll be able to access. In particular, those of you who have set up user accounts will find NTFS invaluable. For instance, if you continue to use FAT or FAT32 anyone with physical access to the drive will be able to access the files and folders that are stored there. However, with NTFS you’ll be able to use a level of encryption (Professional Edition only) that will enable you to protect your data.

You’ll also find NTFS more reliable in that it’s more able to recover from disk errors than its FAT or FAT32 counterparts. A log of all disk activity is kept so should a crash occur, Windows XP can use this information to repair the file system when your PC boots up again. To find out what file system you’re using, open My Computer, right-click your main hard drive and choose Properties. Take a look at the General tab to see confirmation of the file system that’s in use.

Convert now
You can use the convert tool in Windows XP to change the file system on your hard disk from FAT or FAT32 to NTFS. The whole process is safe and your existing data won’t be destroyed. To begin, click Start -> Run, type cmd and press [Return]. At the command prompt type convert c: /fs:ntfs and press [Return] (where ‘c’ is the letter of the drive you’re converting). When you try and run the convert utility, it’s likely that Windows XP will be using your paging file so the process won’t be completed immediately. Therefore, you’ll see a brief message on screen informing you that the conversion will take place instead the next time Windows starts up. Having restarted, the Check Disk utility will run, the conversion will be performed automatically and you may find that your PC will reboot twice more.

The benefits
With your drive now running NTFS, it’s time to take advantage of the new options that are available. Having created a number of different user accounts you can now control the level of access that’s granted to individual users. For example, there are going to be certain files and folders that you’ll want some users to be able to access but not others. If you have Windows XP Professional Edition you can do this immediately.

Right-click any file or folder, choose Properties and select the Security tab. A dialog will be displayed showing the names of all your users. Alongside will be two columns which enable you to select levels of access for each of them, the permissions include Full Control, Modify, Read and Write. You can then check the appropriate box to determine whether or not to Allow or Deny a particular permission. For Windows XP Home Edition users, the Security tab won’t be immediately available. To access this option you’ll need to restart your PC, pressing [F8] until a menu appears. Next select Safe Mode and wait for Windows XP to start up. You can then set your options in the same way.

Another feature is NTFS compression. It’s quick and seamless as your file or folder is decompressed automatically when you access it. (Don’t confuse this with a Zip compression utility where the files need to be extracted before they can be accessed.) Although you may have used NTFS compression on a file or folder, there’s no way of telling just by looking at it. To remedy this, open My Computer, click Tools -> Folder Options and select the View tab. Under Advanced settings, scroll down and check the option ‘Show encrypted or compressed NTFS files in color’, then click Apply and OK. Take a look at your compressed items in My Computer and you’ll see the text label has changed from black to blue. Something else that’s exclusive to Professional Edition users is the Encrypting File System (EFS). You can use this to protect your important data so that no one else can read it. Your encrypted files and folders will only be accessible when you have logged into your user account successfully.

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Converting Movies To Psp Format

How to convert movies to Psp Format.Hey again, this is a real quick guide for anyone interested to get a movie onto there PSP without all the fluff i have seen elsewhere. I just watched Africa the Serengeti on my PSP and heres is the lowdown.

Movie - approx 40 minutes - dvd
Saved to hard drive - 2.6GIG - using DVD Decryptor (free program) try google
Transfered to avi format - 377MB- using Super DVD Ripper (9 FREE trial uses) then you must buy
Transfered to MP4 - 37MB - using the (basically free) Image convertor 2

Average movie breakdown - using above as a guide only.
so im guessing the average movie may be 4.5gig for example
saved to 800MB

Ok use DVD decryptor to save the movie to your hard drive eg. C:\africa (it will save it for you as described)
When completed find the folder c:\africa on your computer and find the vob file in that folder - generally the largest one and right click and play it with your dvd program to see what part it is. If its the correct movie part you now know thats the one you need.

Once you have located the vob file you want to transfer open DVD Ripper and go to wizard icon. There you will see an icon of VOB to AVI button. Click it and then it will ask to locate the file. Locate the file and click it. It will SCAN THE FILE(just wait till that finishes) a parameter box opens next and just click the arrow. It then askes to choose output file, click the file icon and locate the correct fob file. It then askes for file compression - choose microsoft windows media and then click ok Then press the start button. It will now convert the vob into avi format.
(there are also other opions ie;dvd to avi etc) I have only used the vob to avi for this test.

After DVD ripper has transferred the file it will save it to the same folder as the original move was in eg: c:\africa\viteots. Open the file and you will now see an AVI icon containing the movie.

Make sure you PSP is on and in usb mode then Open Image convertor 2 and press on movie / add to list. For this example i click on C:drive the found the folder Africa and opened it and there was my converted AVI file. Click the file press ok and it will be transfered to your PSP for viewing pleasure.

*****Note**** i only converted one VOB file as thatS all there was for this particular movie. If you have more then one vob file you may need to try the dvd to avi when you rip. This is just a guide i worked out to compress dvd into the smallest possible file so you can get value out of a 512 here to get ur Image Converter 2.1 JAP translated to ENG.
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Convert To Basic And Dynamic Disks In Windows Xp

How to 'Convert To Basic And Dynamic Disks In Windows Xp' Windows XP Professional supports two types of disk storage: basic and dynamic. Basic disk storage uses partition-oriented disks. A basic disk contains basic volumes (primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives).

Dynamic disk storage uses volume-oriented disks, and includes features that basic disks do not, such as the ability to create volumes that span multiple disks (spanned and striped volumes).

General Notes
Before you change a basic disk to a dynamic disk, note these items:

You must have at least 1 megabyte (MB) of free space on any master boot record (MBR) disk that you want to convert. This space is automatically reserved when the partition or volume is created in Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP Professional. However, it may not be available on partitions or volumes that are created in other operating systems.

When you convert to a dynamic disk, the existing partitions or logical drives on the basic disk are converted to simple volumes on the dynamic disk.

After you convert to a dynamic disk, the dynamic volumes cannot be changed back to partitions. You must first delete all dynamic volumes on the disk, and then convert the dynamic disk back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, you must first back up or move the data to another volume.

After you convert to a dynamic disk, local access to the dynamic disk is limited to Windows XP Professional and Windows 2000.

If your disk contains multiple installations of Windows XP Professional or Windows 2000, do not convert to a dynamic disk. The conversion operation removes partition entries for all partitions on the disk with the exception of the system and boot volumes for the current operating system.

Dynamic disks are not supported on portable computers or Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition.

Before you change a dynamic disk back to a basic disk, note that all existing volumes must be deleted from the disk before you can convert it back to a basic disk. If you want to keep your data, back up the data, or move your data to another volume.

How to Convert a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk

To convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk:

1) Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group.

2) Click Start, and then click Control Panel.

3) Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

4) In the left pane, click Disk Management.

5) In the lower-right pane, right-click the basic disk that you want to convert, and then click Convert to Dynamic Disk.

NOTE:You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. For example, right-click Disk 0.

6) Select the check box that is next to the disk that you want to convert (if it is not already selected), and then clickOK.

7) Click Details if you want to view the list of volumes in the disk.

8) Click Convert.

9) Click Yes when you are prompted to convert, and then click OK.

How to Convert a Dynamic Disk to a Basic Disk

To change a dynamic disk back to a basic disk:

1) Back up all the data on all the volumes on the disk you want to convert to a basic disk.

2) Log on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group.

3) Click Start, and then click Control Panel.

4) Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

5) In the left pane, click Disk Management.

6) Right-click a volume on the dynamic disk that you want to change to a basic disk, and then click Delete Volume.

7) Click Yes when you are prompted to delete the volume.

8) Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each volume on the dynamic disk.

9) After you have deleted all the volumes on the dynamic disk, right-click the dynamic disk that you want to change to a basic disk, and then click Convert to Basic Disk.

NOTE:You must right-click the gray area that contains the disk title on the left side of the Details pane. For example, right-click Disk 1.
Posted under:

Connect A Psx Pad To Pc

How to connect A Psx Pad To Pc, Warning soldering is involved.....If you are feeling adventurous......
If you have a PlayStation and a PC, and do not have a pad for the computer, or simply those that there are in the market seem to you too expensive or any you don't like, you have a great option here. It connects your PlayStation pad (anyone) to your PC conserving ALL its functionality thanks to the excellent driver DirectPad.



It enjoys the ample range of pads that exists mainly for PlayStation and, of its compared price those of PC (speaking in terms quality-price).


They work for all pads including the dual-shock pads. Also, with the dual-shock ones you will be able to use both analog controls and the capacity for "vibrating" (Force Feedback) in Windows games that support it (Need Speed III, Incoming, Star Wars Rogue Squadron, Flight Simulator, Forsaken, etc). If you want to see the complete list of games that support the Force Feedback, look here.


You will be able to use ALL the buttons of PlayStation pad in your preferred games, altogether 10 if you use digitals or 16 if you use the analog control.


You can connect simultaneously up to two pads.


With the dual-shock pads you will be able to change between the digital control to analog during any game session.


If you already have standard PC pad you will be able to use it simultaneously without losing functionality in either of them (if connecting two joysticks/pads by a Y connector and to the game port, you will only be able to use 2 buttons in each joystick/pad)


The assembly is not very complicated.


In theory it would have to work with any control system of game for PlayStation (pad of another mark, steering wheel, etc).



You will only be able to use it in Windows games, since driver it is programmed for DirectX.


If you want to use the dual-shock you will need an external power supply, or steal power from inside the computer.


The connection goes to the parallel port, which means that if you are going to use the printer you change connectors... but it is worth the trouble!

Words before beginning

Following with the preliminaries, I will going to make clear that you do not need any knowledge electronics, although knowing how to solder and know how to handle a multi-meter. If you do not have any idea, or don't want to do it get a friend who knows to help you.

Connect A Psx Pad To Pc

Posted under:

ZoneAlarm Security Settings

Steps or procedure or methods for Configuring ZoneAlarm Security Settings....

If you're running ZoneAlarm Pro you will probably have considered that most of the "advanced" settings might as well be in Chinese for all the use they are. User friendly they are not!

If you are not on a LAN (connected to another computer in a network) you can use this guide to give your firewall some real muscle and a new lease of life:

Launch ZoneAlarm Pro and click to highlight the "Firewall" tab on the left hand side . In the pane that appears on the right hand side in the section "Internet Zone Security" set the slider control to "High" Then click the "Custom" button in the same section.

The next settings page is divided into two sections with tabs Internet Zone and Trusted Zone at the top of the page. Under the Internet Zone tab there is a list of settings that can be accessed by scrolling. At the top is the high security settings and the only thing that should check from there is "allow broadcast/multicast". The rest should be unchecked.

Scroll down until you get to the medium security settings area. Check all the boxes in this section until you get to "Block Incomming UDP Ports". When you check that you will be asked to supply a list of ports, and in the field at the bottom of the page enter 1-65535

Then go back to the list and check the box alongside "Block Outgoing UDP Ports" and at the bottom of the page enter 1-19, 22-79, 82-7999, 8082-65535

Repeat this proceedure for the following settings
"Block Incomming TCP Ports": 1-65535
"Block Outgoing TCP Ports": 1-19, 22-79, 82-7999, 8082-65535
Then click "Apply", "Ok" at the bottom of the page.

Back in the right hand "Firewall" pane go next to the yellow "Trusted Zone Security" section and set it to "high" with the slider. Click "Custom" and repeat the above proceedure this time choosing the Trusted Zone tab at the top of the settings page.

These settings will stop all incoming packets @ports 1-65535 and also block all pings, trojans etc... this will also stop all spyware or applications from phoning home from your drive without your knowledge!
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Computer Maintenance

Frnds to make best use of ur computer maintenance is compulsory , you may not realize it, but your computer and your car have something in common: they both need regular maintenance. No, you don't need to change your computer's oil. But you should be updating your software, keeping your antivirus subscription up to date, and checking for spyware. Read on to learn what you can do to help improve your computer's security.

Getting started

Here are some basics maintenance tasks you can do today to start improving your computer's security. Be sure you make these part of your ongoing maintenance as well.

* Sign up for software update e-mail notices. Many software companies will send you e-mail whenever a software update is available. This is particularly important for your operating system (e.g., Microsoft VV!|VD0VV$® or Macintosh), your antivirus program, and your firewall.
* Register your software. If you still have registration forms for existing software, send them in. And be sure to register new software in the future. This is another way for the software manufacturer to alert you when new updates are available.
* Install software updates immediately.
When you get an update notice, download the update immediately and install it. (Remember, downloading and installing are two separate tasks.)
An ounce of prevention

A few simple steps will help you keep your files safe and clean.

* Step 1: Update your software
* Step 2: Backup your files
* Step 3: Use antivirus software and keep it updated
* Step 4: Change your passwords

Developing ongoing maintenance practices

Now that you've done some ground work, it's time to start moving into longer term maintenance tasks. These are all tasks that you should do today (or as soon as possible) to get started. But for best results, make these a part of a regular maintenance schedule. We recommend setting aside time each week to help keep your computer secure.

* Back up your files. Backing up your files simply means creating a copy of your computer files that you can use in the event the originals are lost. (Accidents can happen.) To learn more read our tips for backing up information.

* Scan your files with up to date antivirus software. Use your antivirus scan tool regularly to search for potential computer viruses and worms. Also, check your antivirus program's user manual to see if you can schedule an automatic scan of your computer. To learn more, read our tips for reducing your virus risk
* Change your passwords. Using the same password increases the odds that someone else will discover it. Change all of your passwords regularly (we recommend monthly) to reduce your risk. Also, choose your passwords carefully. To learn more, read our tips for creating stronger passwords

Making a schedule

One of the best ways to help protect your computer is to perform maintenance regularly. To help you keep track, we suggest making a regular "appointment" with your computer. Treat it like you would any other appointment. Record it in your datebook or online calendar, and if you cannot make it, reschedule. Remember, you are not only helping to improve your computer, you are also helping to protect your personal information.
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Computer Acronyms

Here are some Computer Acronyms which should be known to each & every computer freek..
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
ALI - Acer Labs, Incorporated
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMD - Advanced Micro Devices
APC - American Power Conversion
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI - Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT - Advanced Technology
ATI - ATI Technologies Inc.
ATX - Advanced Technology Extended

--- B ---
BFG - BFG Technologies
BIOS - Basic Input Output System
BNC - Barrel Nut Connector

--- C ---
CAS - Column Address Signal
CD - Compact Disk
CDR - Compact Disk Recorder
CDRW - Compact Disk Re-Writer
CD-ROM - Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute (ft�/min)
CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CPU - Central Processing Unit
CTX - CTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence)

--- D ---

DDR - Double Data Rate
DDR-SDRAM - Double Data Rate - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DFI - DFI Inc. (Design for Innovation)
DIMM - Dual Inline Memory Module
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
DPI - Dots Per Inch
DVD - Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-RAM - Digital Versatile Disk - Random Access Memory

--- E ---
ECC - Error Correction Code
ECS - Elitegroup Computer Systems
EDO - Extended Data Out
EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EVGA - EVGA Corporation

--- F ---
FC-PGA - Flip Chip Pin Grid Array
FDC - Floppy Disk Controller
FDD - Floppy Disk Drive
FPS - Frame Per Second
FPU - Floating Point Unit
FSAA - Full Screen Anti-Aliasing
FS - For Sale
FSB - Front Side Bus

--- G ---
GB - Gigabytes
GBps - Gigabytes per second or Gigabits per second
GDI - Graphical Device Interface
GHz - GigaHertz

--- H ---
HDD - Hard Disk Drive
HIS - Hightech Information System Limited
HP - Hewlett-Packard Development Company
HSF - Heatsink-Fan

--- I ---
IBM - International Business Machines Corporation
IC - Integrated Circuit
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics
IFS- Item for Sale
IRQ - Interrupt Request
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture
ISO - International Standards Organization

--- J ---
JBL - JBL (Jame B. Lansing) Speakers
JVC - JVC Company of America

- K ---
Kbps - Kilobits Per Second
KBps - KiloBytes per second

--- L ---
LG - LG Electronics
LAN - Local Are Network
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
LDT - Lightning Data Transport
LED - Light Emitting Diode

--- M ---
MAC - Media Access Control
MB � MotherBoard or Megabyte
MBps - Megabytes Per Second
Mbps - Megabits Per Second or Megabits Per Second
MHz - MegaHertz
MIPS - Million Instructions Per Second
MMX - Multi-Media Extensions
MSI - Micro Star International

--- N ---
NAS - Network Attached Storage
NAT - Network Address Translation
NEC - NEC Corporation
NIC - Network Interface Card

--- O ---
OC - Overclock (Over Clock)
OCZ - OCZ Technology
OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer

--- P ---
PC - Personal Computer
PCB - Printed Circuit Board
PCI - Peripheral Component Interconnect
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PCMCIA - Peripheral Component Microchannel Interconnect Architecture
PGA - Professional Graphics Array
PLD - Programmable Logic Device
PM - Private Message / Private Messaging
PnP - Plug 'n Play
PNY - PNY Technology
POST - Power On Self Test
PPPoA - Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM
PPPoE - Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PQI - PQI Corporation
PSU - Power Supply Unit

--- R ---
RAID - Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAM - Random Access Memory
RAMDAC - Random Access Memory Digital Analog Convertor
RDRAM - Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
ROM - Read Only Memory
RPM - Revolutions Per Minute

--- S ---
SASID - Self-scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display
SCA - SCSI Configured Automatically
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface
SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SECC - Single Edge Contact Connector
SODIMM - Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
SPARC - Scalable Processor ArChitecture
SOHO - Small Office Home Office
SRAM - Static Random Access Memory
SSE - Streaming SIMD Extensions
SVGA - Super Video Graphics Array
S/PDIF - Sony/Philips Digital Interface

--- T ---
TB - Terabytes
TBps - Terabytes per second
Tbps - Terabits per second
TDK - TDK Electronics
TEC - Thermoelectric Cooler
TPC - TipidPC
TWAIN - Technology Without An Important Name

--- U ---
UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USB - Universal Serial Bus
UTP - Unshieled Twisted Pair

--- V ---
VCD - Video CD
VPN - Virtual Private Network

--- W ---
WAN - Wide Area Network
WTB - Want to Buy
WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get

--- X ---
XGA - Extended Graphics Array
XFX - XFX Graphics, a Division of Pine
XMS - Extended Memory Specification
XT - Extended Technology
Posted under:


Here are the common ftp error codes which u see generally in ur PC.

~~~~~~~~~COMMON FTP ERROR CODES~~~~~~~~~~

# Description

110 Restart marker reply. In this case, the text is exact and not left to the particular implementation; it must read: MARK yyyy = mmmm where yyyy is User-process data stream marker, and mmmm server's equivalent marker (note the spaces between markers and "=").

120 Service ready in nnn minutes.

125 Data connection already open; transfer starting.

150 File status okay; about to open data connection.

200 Command okay.

202 Command not implemented, superfluous at this site.

211 System status, or system help reply.

212 Directory status.

213 File status.

214 Help message.On how to use the server or the meaning of a particular non-standard command. This reply is useful only to the human user.

215 NAME system type. Where NAME is an official system name from the list in the Assigned Numbers document.

220 Service ready for new user.

221 Service closing control connection.

225 Data connection open; no transfer in progress.

226 Closing data connection. Requested file action successful (for example, file transfer or file abort).

227 Entering Passive Mode (h1,h2,h3,h4,p1,p2).

230 User logged in, proceed. Logged out if appropriate.

250 Requested file action okay, completed.

257 "PATHNAME" created.

331 User name okay, need password.

332 Need account for login.

350 Requested file action pending further information

421 Service not available, closing control connection.This may be a reply to any command if the service knows it must shut down.

425 Can't open data connection.

426 Connection closed; transfer aborted.

450 Requested file action not taken.

451 Requested action aborted. Local error in processing.

452 Requested action not taken. Insufficient storage space in system.File unavailable (e.g., file busy).

500 Syntax error, command unrecognized. This may include errors such as command line too long.

501 Syntax error in parameters or arguments.

502 Command not implemented.

503 Bad sequence of commands.

504 Command not implemented for that parameter.

530 Not logged in.

532 Need account for storing files.

550 Requested action not taken. File unavailable (e.g., file not found, no access).

551 Requested action aborted. Page type unknown.

552 Requested file action aborted. Exceeded storage allocation (for current directory or dataset).

553 Requested action not taken. File name not allowed.

Posted under:

Add menu Windows XP to folder context .

How to add menu windows xp to folder context also drives and My Computer,Using CMD prompt add to folder context menu windows xp,

Copy what's in the code area to notepad and save as cmd here.reg


Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

@="Command Prompt"

@="cmd.exe /k \"cd %L\""

@="Command Prompt"

@="cmd.exe /k \"cd %L\""

@="Command Prompt"

@="cmd.exe /k \"cd %L\""
Posted under:

Remove Unwanted Items From 'Add And Remove'

How to remove unwanted items from 'Add And Remove'..Just follow the given step.

Run the Registry Editor (REGEDIT).
Open HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Uninstall, and remove any unwanted subkeys under "Uninstall."
Posted under:

Check ur PC infected or not using DOS

How to check using Dos whether my PC is infected or not, this is the simplest way to check it out whether ur infected or not...

Follow the given instructions to check it out.

When you first turn on you computer (BEFORE DIALING INTO YOUR ISP),
open a MS-DOS Prompt window (start/programs MS-DOS Prompt).
Then type netstat -arn and press the Enter key.
Your screen should display the following (without the dotted lines
which I added for clarification).

Active Routes:

Network Address Netmask Gateway Address Interface Metric 1 1

Route Table

Active Connections

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State


If you see anything else, there might be a problem (more on that later).
Now dial into your ISP, once you are connected;
go back to the MS-DOS Prompt and run the same command as before
netstat -arn, this time it will look similar to the following (without
dotted lines).


Active Routes:

Network Address Netmask Gateway Address Interface Metric 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Route Table

Active Connections

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State
UDP *:*


What you are seeing in the first section (Active Routes) under the heading of
Network Address are some additional lines. The only ones that should be there
are ones belonging to your ISP (more on that later). In the second section
(Route Table) under Local Address you are seeing the IP address that your ISP
assigned you (in this example

The numbers are divided into four dot notations, the first three should be
the same for both sets, while in this case the .70 is the unique number
assigned for THIS session. Next time you dial in that number will more than
likely be different.

To make sure that the first three notation are as they should be, we will run
one more command from the MS-DOS window.
From the MS-DOS Prompt type tracert / or .net
or whatever it ends in. Following is an example of the output you should see.


Tracing route to / []over a maximum of 30 hops:
1 128 ms 2084 ms 102 ms []
2 115 ms 188 ms 117 ms []
3 108 ms 116 ms 119 ms []
Trace complete.


You will see that on lines with the 1 and 2 the first three notations of the
address match with what we saw above, which is a good thing. If it does not,
then some further investigation is needed.

If everything matches like above, you can almost breath easier. Another thing
which should you should check is programs launched during startup. To find
these, Click start/programs/startup, look at what shows up. You should be
able to recognize everything there, if not, once again more investigation is


Now just because everything reported out like we expected (and demonstrated
above) we still are not out of the woods. How is this so, you ask? Do you use
Netmeeting? Do you get on IRC (Internet Relay Chat)? Or any other program
that makes use of the Internet. Have you every recieved an email with an
attachment that ended in .exe? The list goes on and on, basically anything
that you run could have become infected with a trojan. What this means, is
the program appears to do what you expect, but also does just a little more.
This little more could be blasting or one of the other sites that
CNNlive was talking about.

What can you do? Well some anti-virus software will detect some trojans.
Another (tedious) thing is to start each of these "extra" Internet programs
one at a time and go through the last two steps above, looking at the routes
and connection the program uses. However, the tricky part will be figuring
out where to tracert to in order to find out if the addresses you see in
step 2 are "safe" or not. I should forewarn you, that running tracert after
tracert, after tracert might be considered "improper" by your ISP. The steps
outlined above may not work exactly as I have stated depending upon your ISP,
but with a true ISP it should work. Finally, this advise comes with NO
warranty and by following my "hints' you implicitly release me from ANY and
ALL liability which you may incur.

Other options

Display protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections.
Netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-s] [-p proto] [-r] [intervals]

-a.. Display all connections and listening ports.
-e.. Display Ethernet statistics. This may be combined with the -s option.
-n.. Diplays address and port numbers in the numerical form.
-p proto..Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto may be
TCP or UDP. If used with the -s option to display per-protocol statistics,
proto may be TCP, UDP, of IP.
-r.. Display the routing table.
-s.. Display per-protocol statistics. By default, statistics are shown for TCP
UDP and IP; the -p option may be used to specify a subset of the default
interval..Redisplay selected statistics, pausing intervals seconds between each
display. If omitted. netstat will print the current configuration information
Posted under:
Enrique - Do u know